Factores protectores y los estilos
de crianza: un modelo bioecológico
PDF#1 3

Palabras clave

protective factors
risk factors
K factor
bio-ecological theory estilos de crianza
factores protectores
factores de riesgo
factor K
teoría bioecológica

Cómo citar

Gaxiola Romero , J. C. ., Frías Armenta, M. ., & Figueredo, A. J. . (2011). Factores protectores y los estilos
de crianza: un modelo bioecológico . Psicumex, 1(1), 28–40. https://doi.org/10.36793/psicumex.v1i1.218


Creative Commons License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 4.0.

Derechos de autor 2011


El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar, empleando la teoría bioecológica de Bronfenbrenner, los efectos de factores protectores en la crianza. 183 madres con historia de abuso, habitantes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México, aceptaron participar en la investigación. Los datos fueron analizados empleando ecuaciones estructurales. Los resultados muestran que el factor K modula el efecto de los factores protectores. Éstos y los de riesgo se encontraron tanto en el exosistema, como en el microsistema y en el ontosistema. El factor protector predijo los estilos de crianza, amor- tiguando los efectos de las variables de riesgo como la inseguridad del vecindario, la violencia de pareja y la depresión.

PDF#1 3


Armstrong. M. I., Birnie-Leftcovitch & Ungar, M. T. (2005). Pathways between social support, family well being, quality of parenting, and child resilience: what we know. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 269­281.
Ateah, C. A. & Durrant, J. E. (2005). Maternal use of physical punishment in response to child misbehavior: implications for child abuse prevention. Child Abuse y Neglect, 29, 169–185.
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43–88.
Baumrind, D. (1991). Parenting styles and adolescent development. In J. Brooks­Gunn, R. Lerner & A. C. Petersen (Eds.). The encyclopedia of adolescence (pp. 746–758). New York: Garland.
Baumrind, D. (1983). Rejoinder to Lewis’s reinterpretation of parental firm control effects: Are authoritative families really harmonious? Psychological Bulletin, 94, 132–142.
Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment an ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320­ 335.
Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83­96.
Belsky, J. & Vondra, J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determi­ nants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153­202). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bennett, D. S., Sullivan, M. W. & Lewis, M. (2006). Relations of parental report and observation of parenting to maltreatment history. Child Maltreatment, 11, 63­75.
Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 Structural Equations Program Manual. Encino, CA: Mulivariate Software Inc.
Berger, L. M. (2004). Income, family structure, and child maltreatment risk. Children and Youth Services Review, 8, 725­748.
Bowen, N. K., Bowen, G. L. & Ware, W. B. (2002). Neighborhood social disorganization, families, and the educational behavior of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 468­490.
Boyce, W. T., Frank, E., Jensen, P. S., Kessler, R. C., Nelson, C. A., Steinberg, L., et al. (1998). Social context in developmental psychopathology: Recommendations for future research from the MacArthur Network on Psychopathology and Development. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 143–164.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). La Ecología del Desarrollo Humano. Paidós. Madrid:
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature–nuture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568­586.
Carlson, B. E., McNutt, L. & Choi, D. H. (2003). Childhood and adult abuse among women in primary health care, effects on mental health. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 924­941.
Carr, A. (2003). Adult measures of quality of life. Artrithis y Rheumatism, 49, s113­s133.
Chemtob, C. M. & Carlson, J. G. (2004). Psychological Effects of Domestic Violence on Children and Their Mothers. International Journal of Stress Management, 11, 209–226.
Cicchetti, D. & Rogosch, F. A. (1997). The role of self-organization in the promotion of resilience in maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 797­815.
Cochran, M. & Niego, S. (1995). Parenting and social networks. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.). Handbook of parenting: Vol. 3. Status and social conditions of parenting (pp. 393­418).
Corcoran, J. & Nichols­Casebolt, A. (2004). Risk and resilience ecological framework for assessment and goal formulation. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 3, 211­235.
Cook, T. D. & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-Experimental Design y Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Houghton Mifflin Company.
Crouch, J. L. & Behl, L. E. (2001). Relationships among parental beliefs in corporal punishment, reported stress, and physical child abuse potential. Child Abuse and Neglect, 3, 413­419.
Darling, N. & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as a context: an integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487­496.
Dehle, C., Larsen, D. & Landers, J. E. (2001). Social support in marriage. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 29, 307­324.
DeLongis, A., Capreol, M., Holtzman, S., O’Brien, T. & Campbell, J. (2004). Social support and social strain among husbands and wives: a multilevel analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 470­479.
DuMont, K. A., Widom, C. S. & Czaja, S. J. (2007). Predictors of resilience in abused and neglected children grown-up: The role of individual and neighborhood characteristics. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, pp. 255–274.
Englund, M. M., Luckner, A. E., Whaley, G. J. & Egeland, B. (2004). Children’s Achievement in Early Elementary School: Longitudinal Effects of Parental Involvement, Expectations, and Quality of Assistance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 4, 723–730.
Emery, R. E. & Laumann-Billings, L. (1998). An overview of the nature, causes, and consequences of abusive family relationships. Ameri- can Psychologist, 2, 121­ 135.
Ethier, L. S., Couture, G. & Lacharité, C. (2004). Risk factors associated with the cronicity of high potencial for child abuse and neglect. Jour- nal of Family Violence, 19, 13­ 24.
Figueredo, A. J., Corral, V., Frías, M., Bachar, K. J., White, J, McNeill, P. L., et al. (2001). Blood, solidarity, status and honor. The sexual bal­ ance of power and spousal abuse in Sonora, Mexico. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 295­328.
Figueredo, A. J., Vázquez, G., Brunbach, B. H., Shneider, S., Sefcek, J. A., Tal, I. R., et al. (2005). Consiliencia y la teoría de historia de vida: de los genes al cerebro y a la estrategia reproductiva. In M. Frías y V. Corral (Eds.). Niñez, Adolescencia y Problemas Sociales (pp. 29­ 63), CONACYT y Unison, México.
Flouri, E. (2005). Women’s Psychological Distress in Midadulthood: The Role of Childhood Parenting Experiences. European Psychologist, 2, 116–123.
Frías­Armenta, M., López­Escobar, A. E. y Díaz­Méndez, S. G. (2003). Predictores de la conducta antisocial juvenil: un modelo ecológico. Estudios de Psicología, 8, 15­24.
Frías, M. (2002). Long­ term effects of child punishment on Mexican women: a structural model. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26, 371­386.
Frías, M. & McCloskey, L. A. (1998). Determinants of harsh parenting in Mexico. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 129­139.
Furnham, A. y Cheng, H. (2000). Lay theories of happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 227­246.
Garbarino, J. & Kostelny, K. (1995). Parenting and public policy. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.). Handbook of parenting: Vol. 3. Status and social conditions of parenting (pp. 419­436). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Garbarino, J., Kostelny, K. & Barry, F. (2002). Neighorhood-based programs. In Trickett, P. K. & Schellenbach, C. J. (Eds.). Violence Against Children in the Family and the Community (pp. 287­314). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Gaxiola, R. J. y Frías, M. (2005). Las consecuencias del maltrato infantil: un estudio con madres mexicanas. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 22, 363­374.
Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: a metaanalytic and theoretical re­ view. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539­579.
Hammen, C. (2003). Interpersonal stress and depression in women. Journal of Affective Disorders, 74, 49–57.
Hamilton, M. (1959). The assessment of anxiety states by ratings. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 32, 50­55.
Hamilton, C. J. & Collins, J. J. (1981). The role of alcohol in wife beating and child abuse: A review of the literature. In J. J. Collins (Ed.). Drink- ing and Crime: Perspectives on the Relationships between Alcohol Consumption and Criminal Behavior, pp. 253­287. New York: Guilford Press.
Hyland, M. E. (1998). Defining and measuring quality of life in medicine. JAMA, 59­65.
Korbin, J. E. (2003). Neighborhood and community connectedness in child maltreatment research. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27, 137­140. Langrock, A. M., Compas, B. E., Keller, G., Merchant, M. J. & Copeland, M. E. (2002). Coping with the stress of parental depression: Parent’s reports of children’s coping, emotional, and behavioral problems.
Journal of Clinical and Child Psychology, 31, 312–324.
Louis, V. V. & Zhao, S. (2002). Effects of family structure, family SES, and adulthood experiences on life satisfaction. Journal of Family Issues, 23, 986­1005.

Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O’Hare, E. & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta­analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 561– 592.
Lowne, E. A. & Vega, W. A. (2001). Intimate partner violence and health: self­assessed health, chronic health, and somatic symptoms among Mexican American Women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 3, 352­ 360.
Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D. & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Develop- ment, 71, 543­562.
Lyons­Ruth, K., Wolfe, R. & Lyubchik, A. (2000). Depression and the parenting of young children: Making the case for early preventive mental health services. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 8, 148– 153.
Maccoby, E. E. & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.) y E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1–101) New York: Wiley.
Mann, M., Hosman, C. M. H., Schaalma, H. P. & De Vries, N. K. (2004). Self­esteem in a broad­spectrum approach for mental health promotion. Health Education Research. 19, 357­372.
Margolin, G. & Gordis, E. B. (2003). Co­Ocurrence between marital aggression and parents’ child abuse potential: The impact of cumulative stress. Violence and Victims, 3, 243­258.
Margolin, G., Gordis, E. B., Medina, A. M. & Oliver, P. H. (2003). The cooccurrence of husband­to­wife aggression, family­of­origin aggression, and child abuse potential in a community sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,18, 413­440.
Muller, R. T. & Lemieux, K. E. (2000). Social support, attachment, and psychopathology in high risk formerly maltreated adults. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 883­900.
Munist, M., Santos, H., Kotliarenco, M. A., Suárez­Ojeda, E. N., Infante, F. & Grotberg, E. (1998). Manual de identificación y promoción de la resiliencia en niños y adolescentes. Organización Panamericana de la Salud y Organización Mundial de la Salud. Washington, D.C.
Purdom, C. L., Lucas, J. L. & Miller, K. S. (2006). Couple type, parental status, and the mediating impact of social support. North American Journal of Psychology, 8, 1­12.
Reich, W. (1992). Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents- Revised (DICA­R­7.3). Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Child Psychiatry.
Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective factors mechanisms. In Rolf, J., Masten, A. S., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K. H. & Weintraub, S. (Eds.). Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Psychopathology (pp.181­214), Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Rutter, M. (2007). Resilience, competence, and coping. Child Abuse y Neglect, 3, 205­209.
Rutter, M. (1999). Resilience concepts and findings: implications for family therapy. Journal of Family Therapy, 21, 119­144.
Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598­611.
Sampson, R., Raudenbush, S. & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.
Serbin, L. A. & Karp, J. (2004). The intergenerational transfer of psycho­ social risk: mediators of vulnerability and resilience. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 333­363.
Silk, J. S., Sessa, F. M., Morris, A. S., Steinberg, L. & Avenevoli, S. (2004). Neighborhood cohesion as a buffer against hostile maternal parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 135­146.
Simons, R. L., Lorenz, F. O., Wu, Ch. & Conger, R. D. (1993). Social network and marital support as moderators of the impact of stress and depression on parental behavior. Developmental Psychology, 29, 368­381.
Stevens, G. & Hosingnton, E. (1987). Occupational prestige and the 1980 US labor force. Social Science Research, 16, 74­105.
Straus, M. A. (1990). The Conflict Tactics Scale and its critics: An evaluation and new data on validity and reliability. In M. A. Straus & R. J. Gelles. (Eds.). Physical Violence in American Families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8,145 families. New Brunswick, N J: Transactions Publishers.
Tussaie, K. & Dyer, J. (2004). Resilience: a historical review of the construct. Holistica Nurse Practice, 18, 3­10.
WHOQOL­Bref. The World Health Organization quality of life assessment (WHOQOL): Development and general psychometric properties. (1998). Social Science y Medicine, 46(12), 1569­1585.
Youssef, R. M., Attia, M. S. & Kamel, M. I. (1998). Children experiencing violence I: Parental use of corporal punishment. Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 22, No.10, 959­973.
Zimmerman, S. L. (2000). Self­esteem, personal control, optimism, extraversion and the subjetive well­being of midwestern university faculty. Dissertation Abstracts International B: Sciences and Engineering, 60 (7­B), 3608.