Diseño y validación de una escala para medir la percepción docente sobre autoeficacia para la inclusión de estudiantes con discapacidad (PDED) en educación superior

Palabras clave

autoeficacia docente
inclusión educativa
educación superior
análisis confirmatorio

Cómo citar

Cebreros Valenzuela, D., Durand Villalobos, J. P. ., & Valdés Cuervo, A. A. (2023). Diseño y validación de una escala para medir la percepción docente sobre autoeficacia para la inclusión de estudiantes con discapacidad (PDED) en educación superior. Psicumex, 13(1), 1–29. https://doi.org/10.36793/psicumex.v13i1.536



Los docentes desempeñan un papel esencial en la inclusión educativa de estudiantes universitarios con discapacidad. El presente estudio se propuso diseñar y examinar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala para medir la Percepción Docente de Autoeficacia para la Inclusión de Estudiantes con Discapacidad (PDED). Participaron 426 docentes (Medad = 46.8 años, DE = 11.4) de cinco universidades públicas mexicanas. Los resultados del análisis factorial confirmatorio evidencian un buen ajuste del modelo unidimensional de medida propuesto a los datos. Se constató la invariancia de medida de la escala en docentes de ambos sexos. Las relaciones positivas entre los puntajes de la PDED con las actitudes y el apoyo social de docentes a estudiantes con discapacidad demuestran la validez concurrente de la escala. Se concluyó que la PDED es una escala psicométricamente robusta para medir la percepción docente de autoeficacia para la inclusión de estudiantes universitarios con discapacidad.



Aguirre, A., Carballo, R. & Lopez-Gavira, R. (2021). Improving the academic experience of students with disability in higher education: Faculty members of social sciences and law Speak out. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 34(3), 305–320. https://doi.org/10.1080/13511610.2020.1828047

Albarracín, D., Johnson, B. T., Zanna, M. P. & Kumkale, T. (2005). Attitudes: An introduction. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson and M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (pp. 1–20). Routledge.

Almanasreh, E., Moles, R. & Chen, T. F. (2019). Evaluation of methods used for estimating content validity. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 15(2), 214–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2018.03.066

Alnahdi, G. H. (2019). Rasch validation of the Arabic version of the Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) scale. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 62(1), 104–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2019.05.004

Alnahdi, G. H. & Yada, A. (2020). Rasch analysis of the Japanese version of Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices Scale: Scale one-dimensionality. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, e1725. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01725

Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior. (2020). Anuarios estadísticos de educación superior. http://www.anuies.mx/ nformación-y-servicios/informacion-estadistica-de-educacion-superior/an uario-estadistico-de-educacion-superior

Bala, I. (2021). Attitude of teachers towards inclusive education in relation to their perceived self-efficacy to teach in inclusive classroom. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 12(10), 7223–7228. https://doi.org/10.17762/turcomat.v12i10.5611

Banco Mundial (2019). Discapacidad. https://www.bancomundial.org/es/topic/disability#1

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Freeman.

Browne, M. W. (2000). Cross-validation methods. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 44(1), 108–132. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmps.1999.1279

Byrne, B. (2012). Structural equation modeling with Mplus. Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Routledge.

Cappe, E., Poirier, N., Engelberg, A. & Boujut, E. (2021). Comparison of teachers in France and in Quebec working with autistic students: Self-efficacy, stress, social support, coping, and burnout. Teaching and Teacher Education, 98, e103244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103244

Cardona-Moltó, M. C., Ticha, R. & Abery, B. H. (2020). The Spanish version of the Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practice (TEIP) scale: Adaptation and psychometric properties. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(2), 809–823. doi: 10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.809

Chen, F. F., Sousa, K. H. & West, S. G. (2005). Teacher’s corner: Testing measurement invariance of second-order factor models. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 12(3), 471–492. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1203_7

Cohen, J. (1998). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Das, A. K., Gichuru, M. & Singh, A. (2013). Implementing inclusive education in Delhi, India: Regular school teachers’ preferences for professional development delivery modes. Professional Development in Education, 39(5), 698–711. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2012.747979

Emmers, E., Baeyens, D. & Petry, K. (2020). Attitudes and self-efficacy of teachers towards inclusion in higher education. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 35(2), 139–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2019.1628337

Fives, H. & Buehl, M. M. (2016). Teacher motivation: Self-efficacy and goal orientation. In K. R. Wentzel and D. B. Miele (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (2nd ed., pp. 340–360). Routledge.

Forlin, G. & Chambers, D. (2011). Teacher preparation for inclusive education: Increasing knowledge but raising concerns. Asian-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2010.540850

Furr, R. M. & Bacharach, V. R. (2014). Psychometrics. An introduction (2nd ed.). SAGE.

García-González, G. C., Herrera-Seda, C. y Vanegas-Ortega, C. (2018). Competencias docentes para una pedagogía inclusiva. Consideraciones a partir de la experiencia con formadores de profesores chilenos. Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Inclusiva, 12(2), 149–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-73782018000200149

Gebbie, D. H., Ceglowski, D., Taylor, L. K. & Miels, J. (2012). The role of teacher efficacy in strengthening classroom support for preschool children with disabilities who exhibit challenging behavior. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(1), 35–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-011-0486-5

Green, S. B. & Yang, Y. (2015). Evaluation of dimensionality in the assessment of internal consistency reliability: Coefficient Alpha and Omega coefficients. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practices, 34(4), 14–20. https://doi.org/10.1111/emip.12100

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Pearson.

Hambleton, R. K. (2005). Issues, designs, and technical guidelines for adapting tests into multiple languages and cultures. In R. Hambleton, P. Merenda and S. Spielberger (Eds.), Adapting educational and psychological tests for cross-cultural assessment (pp. 3–38). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hancock, G. R. & Liu, M. (2012). Bootstrapping standard errors and data model fit statistic. In H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp. 296–306). The Guildford Press.

Hartsoe, J. K. & Barclay, S. R. (2017). Universal design and disability: Assessing faculty beliefs, knowledge, and confidence in universal design for instruction. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 30(3), 223–236. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1164001.pdf

Hoffman, R. H. & Kilimo, J. S. (2014). Teachers’ attitudes and self-efficacy towards inclusion of pupils with disabilities in Tanzanian schools. Journal of Education and Training, 1(2), 177–198. https://doi.org/10.5296/JET.V1I2.5760

Holzberger, D., Philipp, A. & Kunter, M. (2013). How teachers’ self-efficacy is related to instructional quality: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 774–786. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032198

Hosford, S. & O'Sullivan, S. (2016). A climate for self-efficacy: The relationship between school climate and teacher efficacy for inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(6), 604–621. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2015.1102339

Hu, L-t. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. (2018). Encuesta nacional de la dinámica demográfica. https://www.inegi.org.mx/default.html

Jury, M., Perrin, A.-L., Desombre, C. & Rohmer, O. (2021). Teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder: Impact of students’ difficulties. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 83, e101746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2021.101746

Klassen, R. M. & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects of teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 741–756. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019237

Klassen, R. M. & Tze, V. M. C. (2014). Teachers’ self-efficacy, personality, and teaching effectiveness: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 12(4), 59–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2014.06.001

Kilpatrick, S., Barnes, J. R., Fisher, S., McLennan, D. & Magnussen, K. (2017). Exploring the retention and success of students with disability in Australian higher education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(7), 747–762. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2016.1251980

Maddux, J. M. (1995). Self-efficacy theory: An introduction. In J. M. Maddux (Ed.), Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment. Theory, research, and application (pp. 3–36). Springer.

Mahat, M. (2008). The development of a psychometrically-sound instrument to measure teachers’ multidimensional attitudes toward inclusive education. International Journal of Special Education, 23(1), 82–92. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ814377.pdf

Malecki, C. K. & Elliot, S. N. (1999). Adolescents’ rating perceived social support and its importance: Validation of the Student Social Support Scale. Psychology in the Schools, 36(6), 473–883. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1520-6807(199911)36:6<473::aid-pits3>3.0.co;2-0

Michael, R., Levi-Keren, M., Efrai-Virtzer, M. & Cinamon, R. (2020). The contribution of field experience in special education programs and personal variables to the teaching self-efficacy of higher education students. Teacher Development, 24(2), 223–241. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2020.1740311

Miller, A. D., Ramírez, E. M. & Murdock, T. B. (2017). The influence of teachers’ self-efficacy on perceptions: Perceived teacher competence and respect and student effort and achievement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 64, 260–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.02.008

Montgomery, A. & Mirenda, P. (2014). Teachers’ self-efficacy, sentiments, attitudes, and concerns about inclusion of students with developmental disabilities. Exceptionality Education International, 24(1), 18–32. https://doi.org/10.5206/eei.v24i1.7708

Moriña, A. (2017). Inclusive education in higher education: Challenges and opportunities. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 32(1), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2016.1254964

Muntaner, J. J., Rosselló, M. R. y de la Iglesia, B. (2016). Buenas prácticas en educación inclusiva. Educatio Siglo XXI, 34(1), 31–50. https://doi.org/10.6018/j/252521

Muthén, L. K. y Muthén, B. O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed.). Muthén y Muthén.

Özokcu, O. (2017). Investigating the relationship between teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and efficacy for inclusion. European Journal of Special Education Research, 2(6), 234–252. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1133784

Pantic, N. & Carr, D. (2017). Educating teachers as agents of social justice: A virtue ethical perspective. In L. Florian and N. Pantic (Eds.), Teacher education for the changing demographics of schooling, issues for research and practice (pp. 55–66). Springer.

Park, Mi.-H., Dimitrov, D. M., Das, A. & Gichuru, M. (2016). The Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) scale: Dimensionality and factor structure. Journal of Research in Special Education Needs, 16(1), 2–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-3802.12047

Perera, H. N. & John, J. E. (2020). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs for teaching math: Relations with teacher and student outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61(2), e101842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101842

Porter, S. R. (2011). Do college surveys have any validity? The Review of Higher Education, 35(1), 45–76. https://doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2011.0034

Putnick, D. L. & Bornstein, M. H. (2016). Measurement invariance conventions and reporting: The state of the art and future directions for psychological research. Developmental Review, 41, 71–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2016.06.004

Saloviita, T. (2020). Attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 64(2), 270–282. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2018.1541819

Sharma, U., Loreman, T. & Forlin, C. (2012). Measuring teacher efficacy to implement inclusive practices. Journal of Special Education Needs, 12(1), 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-3802.2011.01200.x

Schunk, D. H. & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2016). Self-efficacy theory in education. In K. R. Wentzel and D. B. Miele (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (2nd ed., pp. 34–54). Routledge.

Skaalvik, E. M. & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 611–625. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.99.3.611

Tschannen-Moran, M. & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing and elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00036-1

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (2017). Education for sustainable development goals: Learning objectives. Education 2030. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000247444

Uriarte, J. D. D., Pegalajar, M., León, J. M. D. y Galindo, H. (2019). Las relaciones entre las actitudes hacia la educación inclusiva, la autoeficacia y la resiliencia docentes. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 1, 75–86. https://revista.infad.eu/index.php/IJODAEP/article/view/1452/1213

Woodcock, S. (2011). A cross sectional study of pre-service teacher efficacy throughout the training years. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(10), 23–34. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ940870.pdf

Yada, A. & Savolainen, H. (2017). Japanese in-service teachers’ attitudes toward inclusive education and self-efficacy for inclusive practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 64(4), 222–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.02.005

Zee, M. & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student academic adjustment, and teacher well-being: A Synthesis of 40 years of research. Review of Educational Research, 20(10), 1–35. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315626801

Creative Commons License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 4.0.

Derechos de autor 2022


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.