Fármacos enteógenos y la depresión resistente al tratamiento: Una revisión narrativa
PDF

Palabras clave

enteógenos
alucinógenos
depresión
antidepresivos
misticismo

Cómo citar

Herrera Solís, A., Cortés Morelos, J., Ruiz Contreras, A. E., Méndez Díaz, M., Ortega Gómez, A., & Prospéro García, O. E. (2024). Fármacos enteógenos y la depresión resistente al tratamiento: Una revisión narrativa. Psicumex, 14(1), 1–34. https://doi.org/10.36793/psicumex.v14i1.628

Métrica

Resumen

Los enteógenos han surgido en la investigación clínica como un tratamiento alternativo para la Depresión Resistente al Tratamiento (DRT). Tienen efectos antidepresivos rápidos y duraderos, son ansiolíticos, y mitigan la ideación suicida. Además, inducen emociones positivas y provocan experiencias místicas o espirituales, atributos que pueden contribuir a su eficacia terapéutica, dada la influencia protectora del misticismo y la religiosidad contra la depresión. Esta revisión narrativa tiene como objetivo discutir la evidencia existente sobre la utilización de enteógenos en la DRT, proporcionar una comprensión actualizada del panorama de la investigación y discutir los mecanismos de acción de compuestos como la psilocibina, DMT, LSD, ketamina, esketamina y cannabinoides. La eficacia de los enteógenos en el manejo de la depresión ha sido validada consistentemente en los ensayos clínicos. No obstante, es imperativo reconocer nuestra limitada comprensión de los posibles efectos adversos, especialmente a largo plazo, a pesar de los datos que sustentan su tolerabilidad aguda.

https://doi.org/10.36793/psicumex.v14i1.628
PDF

Citas

Aaronson, B. S., & Osmond, H. (1970). Psychedelics: the Uses and Implications of Hallucinogenic Drugs. (Vol. VII). Anchor Books.

Aghajanian, G. K., & Marek, G. J. (1999). Serotonin and Hallucinogens. Neuropsychopharmacology, 21(2 Suppl.), 16S-23S. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0893-133X(98)00135-3

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM-5 : Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.

Andrews, C. N., Rehak, R., Woo, M., Walker, I., Ma, C., Forbes, N., Rittenbach, K., Hathaway, J., Wilsack, L., Liu, A., Nasser, Y., & Sharkey, K. A. (2022). Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome in North America: Evaluation of Health Burden and Treatment Prevalence. Alimentary Pharmacology Therapeutics, 56(11-12), 1532-1542. https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.17265

Baca García, E. y Aroca, F. (2014). Factores de riesgo de la conducta suicida asociados a trastornos depresivos y ansiedad. Salud Mental, 37(5), 373-380. https://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0185-33252014000500003

Barnby, J. M., Bailey, N. W., Chambers, R., & Fitzgerald, P. B. (2015). How Similar are the Changes in Neural Activity Resulting from Mindfulness Practice in Contrast to Spiritual Practice? Consciousness and Cognition, 36, 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2015.07.002

Beal, J. E., Olson, R., Laubenstein, L., Morales, J. O., Bellman, P., Yangco, B., Lefkowitz, L., Plasse, T., & Shepard, K. V. (1995). Dronabinol as a Treatment for Anorexia Associated with Weight Loss in Patients with AIDS. Journal of Pain and Symptom Manage, 10(2), 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-3924(94)00117-4

Bell, A. D., MacCallum, C., Margolese, S., Walsh, Z., Wright, P., Daeninck, P. J., Lacasse, G., Kaur, J., de Freitas, L., St. Pierre, M., Belle-Isle, L., Gagnon, M., Bevan, S., Sanchez, T., Arlt, S., Monahan-Ellison, M., O’Hara, J., Boivin, M., Costiniuk, C., External Review Panel, Chow, N., Sealey, R., & Balneaves, L. (2023). Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cannabis and Cannabinoid-Based Medicines in the Management of Chronic Pain and Co-Occurring Conditions. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 9(2), https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2021.0156

Bhaskar, A., Bell, A., Boivin, M., Briques, W., Brown, M., Clarke, H., Cyr, C., Eisenberg, E., de Oliveira Silva, R., Frohlich, E., Georgius, P., Hogg, M., Horsted, T., MacCallum, C., Muller-Vahl, K., O’Connell, C., Sealey, R., Seibolt, M., Sihota, A., Smith, B., Sulak, D., Vigano, A., & Moulin, D. E. (2021). Consensus Recommendations on Dosing and Administration of Medical Cannabis to Treat Chronic Pain: Results of a Modified Delphi Process. Journal of Cannabis Research, 3(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42238-021-00073-1

Boyaji, S., Merkow, J., Elman, R. N. M., Kaye, A. D., Yong, R. J., & Urman, R. D. (2020). The Role of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Chronic Pain Management: An Assessment of Current Evidence. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 24(2), 4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31980957/

Bray, F., Laversanne, M., Sung, H., Ferlay, J., Siegel, R. L., Soerjomataram, I., & Jemal, A. (2024). Global cancer statistics 2022: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21834

Carbonaro, T. M., & Gatch, M. B. (2016). Neuropharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Brain Research Bulletin, 126(Pt 1), 74-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.04.016

Carhart-Harris, R., Giribaldi, B., Watts, R., Baker-Jones, M., Murphy-Beiner, A., Murphy, R., Martell, J., Blemings, A., Erritzoe, D., & Nutt, D. J. (2021). Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression. The New England of Journal Medicine, 384(15), 1402-1411. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2032994

Carhart-Harris, R. L., Bolstridge, M., Rucker, J., Day, C. M., Erritzoe, D., Kaelen, M., . . . & Nutt, D. J. (2016). Psilocybin with Psychological Support for Treatment-Resistant Depression: An Open-Label Feasibility Study. Lancet Psychiatry, 3(7), 619-627. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30065-7

Carhart-Harris, R. L., Roseman, L., Bolstridge, M., Demetriou, L., Pannekoek, J. N., Wall, M. B., . . . & Nutt, D. J. (2017). Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression: fMRI-Measured Brain Mechanisms. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 13187. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13282-7

Carhart-Harris, R. L., Bolstridge, M., Day, C. M. J., Rucker, J., Watts, R., Erritzoe, D. E., . . . & Nutt, D. J. (2018). Psilocybin with Psychological Support for Treatment-Resistant Depression: Six-Month Follow-Up. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 235(2), 399-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4771-x

Carod-Artal, F. J. (2015). Hallucinogenic Drugs in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican Cultures. Neurología, 30(1), 42-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2011.07.003

Cavenaghi, V. B., da Costa, L. P., Lacerda, A. L. T., Hirata, E. S., Miguel, E. C., & Fraguas, R. (2021). Subcutaneous Ketamine in Depression: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 513068. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.513068

Chen, C., & Nakagawa, S. (2023). Recent Advances in the Study of the Neurobiological Mechanisms Behind the Effects of Physical Activity on Mood, Resilience and Emotional Disorders. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 32(9), 937–942.

https://doi.org/10.17219/acem/171565

Cipriani, A., Furukawa, T. A., Salanti, G., Chaimani, A., Atkinson, L. Z., Ogawa, Y., . . . & Geddes, J. R. (2018). Comparative Efficacy and Acceptability of 21 Antidepressant Drugs for the Acute Treatment of Adults With Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. Focus, 16(4), 420-429. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.focus.16407

Comings, D. E. (2010). The Neurobiology, Genetics and Evolution of Human Spirituality: The Central Role of the Temporal Lobes. NeuroQuantology, 8(4), 478-494. https://neuroquantology.com/open-access/The+Neurobiology%252C+Genetics+and+Evolution+of+Human+Spirituality+The+Central+Role+of+the+Temporal+Lobes_11631/?download=true

Comings, D. E., Gonzales, N., Saucier, G., Johnson, J. P., & MacMurray, J. P. (2000). The DRD4 Gene and the Spiritual Transcendence Scale of the Character Temperament Index. Psychiatric Genetics, 10(4), 185-189. https://doi.org/10.1097/00041444-200010040-00006

Daly, E. J., Turkoz, I., Salvadore, G., Fedgchin, M., Ionescu, D. F., Starr, H. L., . . . & Singh, J. B. (2021). The Effect of Esketamine in Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression With and Without Comorbid Anxiety Symptoms or Disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 38(11), 1120-1130. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.23193

Darquennes, G., Wacquier, B., Loas, G., & Hein, M. (2023). Suicidal Ideations in Major Depressed Subjects: Role of the Temporal Dynamics of Anhedonia. Brain Sciences, 13(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13071065

Dominguez-Clave, E., Soler, J., Elices, M., Pascual, J. C., Alvarez, E., de la Fuente Revenga, M., . . . & Riba, J. (2016). Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, Neuroscience and Therapeutic Potential. Brain Research Bulletin, 126(Part 1), 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.03.002

Dos Santos, R. G., Hallak, J. E., Baker, G., & Dursun, S. (2021). Hallucinogenic/Psychedelic 5HT2A Receptor Agonists as Rapid Antidepressant Therapeutics: Evidence and Mechanisms of Action. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 35(4), 453-458. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881120986422

Duman, R. S., Li, N., Liu, R. J., Duric, V., & Aghajanian, G. (2012). Signaling Pathways Underlying the Rapid Antidepressant Actions of Ketamine. Neuropharmacology, 62(1), 35-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.08.044

Fava, M. (2003). Diagnosis and Definition of Treatment-Resistant Depression. Biological Psychiatry, 53(8), 649-659. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3223(03)00231-2

Food and Drug Administration. (2019, Sept). Depression Medicines. Food and Drug Administration US.

https://www.fda.gov/consumers/free-publications-women/depression-medicines

Forsythe, M. L., & Boileau, A. J. (2021). Use of Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physioly and Pharmacogy, 33(2), 121-132. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2020-0279

García-Frade Ruiz, L. F., Marín-Navarrete, R., Solís Ayala, E., & de la Fuente-Martín, A. (2017). Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Case Report in Mexico. Salud Mental, 40(3), 129-135. https://doi.org/10.17711/sm.0185-3325.2017.016

Ge, L., Zhu, M. M., Yang, J. Y., Wang, F., Zhang, R., Zhang, J. H., . . . Wu, C. F. (2015). Differential Proteomic Analysis of the Anti-Depressive Effects of Oleamide in a Rat Chronic Mild Stress Model of Depression. Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior, 131, 77-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2015.01.017

Goncalves, J., Luis, A., Gallardo, E., & Duarte, A. P. (2021). Psychoactive Substances of Natural Origin: Toxicological Aspects, Therapeutic Properties and Analysis in Biological Samples. Molecules, 26(5), 1397. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051397

Gontijo Garcia, G. S., Meira, K. C., de Souza, A. H., & Guimaraes, N. S. (2023). Anxiety and depression disorders in oncological patients under palliative care at a hospital service: a cross-sectional study. BMC Palliat Care, 22(1), 116. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12904-023-01233-1

Goodwin, G. M., Aaronson, S. T., Alvarez, O., Arden, P. C., Baker, A., Bennett, J. C., . . . & Malievskaia, E. (2022). Single-Dose Psilocybin for a Treatment-Resistant Episode of Major Depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 387(18), 1637-1648. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2206443

Greenberg, P. E., Fournier, A. A., Sisitsky, T., Simes, M., Berman, R., Koenigsberg, S. H., & Kessler, R. C. (2021). The Economic Burden of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder in the United States (2010 and 2018). Pharmacoeconomics, 39(6), 653-665. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40273-021-01019-4

Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2006). Psilocybin Can Occasion Mystical-Type Experiences Having Substantial and Sustained Personal Meaning and Spiritual Significance. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 187(3), 268-283; discussion 284-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5

Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Carducci, M. A., Umbricht, A., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D., . . . Klinedinst, M. A. (2016). Psilocybin Produces Substantial and Sustained Decreases in Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Life-Threatening Cancer: A Randomized Double-

Blind Trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(12), 1181-1197. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881116675513

Grob, C. S., Danforth, A. L., Chopra, G. S., Hagerty, M., McKay, C. R., Halberstadt, A. L., & Greer, G. R. (2011). Pilot Study of Psilocybin Treatment for Anxiety in Patients with Advanced-Stage Cancer. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(1), 71-78. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.116

Guzel, T., Mech, K., Iwanowska, M., Wronski, M., & Slodkowski, M. (2021). Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Declines After Complete Curative Resection in Gastrointestinal Cancer. Peer, 9, e11718. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11718

Hamill, J., Hallak, J., Dursun, S. M., & Baker, G. (2019). Ayahuasca: Psychological and Physiologic Effects, Pharmacology and Potential Uses in Addiction and Mental Illness. Current Neuropharmacology, 17(2), 108-128. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X16666180125095902

Hasbi, A., Madras, B. K., & George, S. R. (2023). Endocannabinoid System and Exogenous Cannabinoids in Depression and Anxiety: A Review. Brain Sciences, 13(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13020325

Higginson, I. J., Finlay, I. G., Goodwin, D. M., Hood, K., Edwards, A. G., Cook, A., . . . & Normand, C. E. (2003). Is There Evidence that Palliative Care Teams Alter End-of-Life Experiences of Patients and their Caregivers? Journal of Pain and Symptom Manage, 25(2), 150-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0885-3924(02)00599-7

Holze, F., Gasser, P., Muller, F., Dolder, P. C., & Liechti, M. E. (2022). Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Assisted Therapy in Patients With Anxiety With and Without a Life-Threatening Illness: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Study. Biological Psychiatry, 93(3), 215-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.08.025

Ji, Y., Liu, X., Zheng, S., Zhong, Q., Zheng, R., Huang, J., & Yin, H. (2023). Validation and Application of the Chinese Version of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale: Suicidality and Cognitive Deficits in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 342(1), 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2023.09.014

Kirk, K. M., Eaves, L. J., & Martin, N. G. (1999). Self-Transcendence as a Measure of Spirituality in a Sample of Older Australian Twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 2(2), 81-87. https://doi.org/10.1375/136905299320565942

Ley General de Salud. (2022, 16 de mayo). Diario Oficial de la Federación, Cámara de Diputados del H. Congreso de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. https://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/LGS.pdf

Liu, Y., Lin, D., Wu, B., & Zhou, W. (2016). Ketamine Abuse Potential and Use Disorder. Brain Research Bulletin, 126(Pt 1), 68-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.05.016

Liu, Q., Ho, K. Y., Lam, K. K., Lam, W., Ma, P., Abu-Odah, H., . . . & Wong, F. K. (2023). The Associations Between Spiritual Well-Being, Hope and Psychological Symptoms in Chinese Childhood Cancer Patients: A Path Analysis. Psychooncology, 32(9), 1452-1460. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.6198

Madras, B. K. (2022). Psilocybin in Treatment-Resistant Depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 387(18), 1708-1709. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2210975

Malleson, N. (1971). Acute Adverse Reactions to LSD in Clinical and Experimental Use in the United Kingdom. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 118(543), 229-230. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.118.543.229

Mathew, S. J. & Zarate, C. A. (2016). Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression: the First Decade of Progress. Springer International.

Mato, S., Pilar-Cuellar, F., Valdizan, E. M., Gonzalez-Maeso, J., Rodriguez-Puertas, R., Meana, J., . . . & Pazos, A. (2018). Selective Up-Regulation of Cannabinoid CB(1) Receptor Coupling to Go-Proteins in Suicide Victims with Mood Disorders. Biochemical Pharmacology, 157, 258-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2018.08.012

Matveychuk, D., Thomas, R. K., Swainson, J., Khullar, A., MacKay, M. A., Baker, G. B., & Dursun, S. M. (2020). Ketamine as an Antidepressant: Overview of Its Mechanisms of Action and Potential Predictive Miomarkers. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, 10, 2045125320916657. https://doi.org/10.1177/2045125320916657

McIntyre, R. S., Carvalho, I. P., Lui, L. M. W., Majeed, A., Masand, P. S., Gill, H., . . . & Rosenblat, J. D. (2020). The Effect of Intravenous, Intranasal, and Oral Ketamine in Mood Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 276(1), 576-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.050

Miller, L., Wickramaratne, P., Gameroff, M. J., Sage, M., Tenke, C. E., & Weissman, M. M. (2012). Religiosity and Major Depression in Adults at High Risk: A Ten-Year Prospective Study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(1), 89-94. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.10121823

Miller, L., Bansal, R., Wickramaratne, P., Hao, X., Tenke, C. E., Weissman, M. M., & Peterson, B. S. (2014). Neuroanatomical Correlates of Religiosity and Spirituality: A Study in Adults At High and Low Familial Risk for Depression. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(2), 128-135. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.3067

Mohandas, E. (2008). Neurobiology of Spirituality. Mens Sana Monographs, 6(1), 63-80. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1229.33001

Moltke, J., & Hindocha, C. (2021). Reasons for Cannabidiol Use: A Cross-Sectional Study of CBD Users, Focusing on Self-Perceived Stress, Anxiety, and Sleep Problems. Journal of Cannabis Research, 3(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42238-021-00061-5

Nichols, D. E. (2004). Hallucinogens. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 101(2), 131-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.11.002

Nielsen, S. W., Ruhlmann, C. H., Eckhoff, L., Bronnum, D., Herrstedt, J., & Dalton, S. O. (2022). Cannabis Use Among Danish Patients with Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Sociodemographic Traits, Quality of Life, and Patient Experiences. Support Care Cancer, 30(2), 1181-1190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06515-z

Organización Mundial de la Salud. (2021a, 13 de Septiembre, 2021). Depresión. Organización Mundial de la Salud. https://www.who.int/es/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression

Organización Mundial de la Salud. (2021b, 17 de Junio, 2021). Suicidio. Organización Mundial de la Salud. https://www.who.int/es/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/suicide

Palhano-Fontes, F., Barreto, D., Onias, H., Andrade, K. C., Novaes, M. M., Pessoa, J. A., . . . & Araujo, D. B. (2019). Rapid Antidepressant Effects of the Psychedelic Ayahuasca in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Psychological Medicine, 49(4), 655-663. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718001356

Pérez, A., Sandino, C. y Gómez O, V. (2005). Relación entre depresión y práctica religiosa: un estudio exploratorio. Suma Psicológica, 12(1), 77-85. https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=134219072005 (IN FILE)

Pew Research Center. (2022). Religion. Pew Researcspanah Center. http://www.pewforum.org/

Pizzagalli, D. A. & Roberts, A. C. (2022). Prefrontal Cortex and Depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 47(1), 225-246. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-021-01101-7

Poleszak, E., Wosko, S., Slawinska, K., Wyska, E., Szopa, A., Swiader, K., . . . & Serefko, A. (2020). Influence of the Endocannabinoid System on the Antidepressant Activity of Bupropion and Moclobemide in the Behavioural Tests in Mice. Pharmacological Reports, 72(6), 1562-1572. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43440-020-00088-0

Prospéro-Garcia, O. (2021). Controversias sobre la marihuana, un análisis científico de sus propiedades (O. Prospero-Garcia, Ed. Primera ed.). Tirant to Blanch.

Prospero-Garcia, O., Ruiz Contreras, A. E., Ortega Gomez, A., Herrera-Solis, A., Mendez-Diaz, M. y Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. (2019). Endocannabinoids as Therapeutic Targets. Archives of Medical Research, 50(8), 518-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2019.09.005

Puig, M. V., & Gulledge, A. T. (2011). Serotonin and prefrontal cortex function: neurons, networks, and circuits. Mol Neurobiol, 44(3), 449-464. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-011-8214-0

Reiff, C. M., Richman, E. E., Nemeroff, C. B., Carpenter, L. L., Widge, A. S., Rodriguez, C. I., . . . & Novel Treatments, a. D. o. t. A. P. A. C. o. R. (2020). Psychedelics and Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(5), 391-410. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19010035

Rosenstein, D. L. (2011). Depression and end-of-life care for patients with cancer. Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 13(1), 101-108. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21485750

Ross, S., Bossis, A., Guss, J., Agin-Liebes, G., Malone, T., Cohen, B., . . . & Schmidt, B. L. (2016). Rapid and Sustained Symptom Reduction Following Psilocybin Treatment for Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Life-Threatening Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(12), 1165-1180. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881116675512

Rybak, Y. E., Lai, K. S. P., Ramasubbu, R., Vila-Rodriguez, F., Blumberger, D. M., Chan, P., . . . & Burhan, A. M. (2021). Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder: Canadian Expert Consensus on Definition and Assessment. Depression and Anxiety, 38(4), 456-467. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.23135

Salgado, A. L. C. (2014). Revisión de estudios empíricos sobre el impacto de la religión, religiosidad y espiritualidad como factores protectores. Revista de Psicología Educativa. Propósitos y Representaciones, 2, 121-159. https://doi.org/10.20511/pyr2014.v2n1.55

Salort, G., Hernandez-Hernandez, E., Garcia-Fuster, M. J., & Garcia-Sevilla, J. A. (2020). Regulation of Cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) Receptors, Neuroprotective mTOR and pro-apoptotic JNK1/2 Kinases in Postmortem Prefrontal Cortex of Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 276, 626-635. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.074

Sanches, R. F., de Lima Osorio, F., Dos Santos, R. G., Macedo, L. R., Maia-de-Oliveira, J. P., Wichert-Ana, L., . . . & Hallak, J. E. (2016). Antidepressant Effects of a Single Dose of Ayahuasca in Patients With Recurrent Depression: A SPECT Study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 36(1), 77-81. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000436

Sapkota, A., Khurshid, H., Qureshi, I. A., Jahan, N., Went, T. R., Sultan, W., & Alfonso, M. (2021). Efficacy and Safety of Intranasal Esketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adults: A Systematic Review. Cureus, 13(8), e17352. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17352

Schlag, A. K., Aday, J., Salam, I., Neill, J. C., & Nutt, D. J. (2022). Adverse Effects of Psychedelics: From Anecdotes and Misinformation to Systematic Science. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 36(3), 258-272. https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811211069100

Seak, Y. S., Nor, J., Tuan Kamauzaman, T. H., Arithra, A., & Islam, M. A. (2021). Efficacy and Safety of Intranasal Ketamine for Acute Pain Management in the Emergency Setting: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(17). https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173978

Shabani, M., Taheri-Kharameh, Z., Saghafipour, A., Ahmari-Tehran, H., Yoosefee, S., & Amini-Tehrani, M. (2023). Resilience and Spirituality Mediate Anxiety and Life Satisfaction in Chronically Ill Older Adults. BMC Psychology, 11(1), 256.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-023-01279-z

Shamabadi, A., Ahmadzade, A., Pirahesh, K., Hasanzadeh, A., & Asadigandomani, H. (2023). Suicidality Risk After Using Cannabis and Cannabinoids: An Umbrella Review. Dialogues in Clinica Neuroscience, 25(1), 50-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/19585969.2023.2231466

Sinner, B. & Graf, B. M. (2008). Ketamine. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, (182), 313-333. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_15

Spanagel, R., & Bilbao, A. (2021). Approved Cannabinoids for Medical Purposes - Comparative Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis for Sleep and Appetite. Neuropharmacology, 196, 108680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108680

Stefanczyk-Sapieha, L., Oneschuk, D., & Demas, M. (2008). Intravenous Ketamine "Burst" for Refractory Depression in a Patient with Advanced Cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 11(9), 1268-1271. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2008.9828

Timmermann, C., Roseman, L., Williams, L., Erritzoe, D., Martial, C., Cassol, H., . . . & Carhart-Harris, R. (2018). DMT Models the Near-Death Experience. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1424. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01424

van Elk, M., & Aleman, A. (2017). Brain Mechanisms in Religion and Spirituality: An Integrative Predictive Processing Framework. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 73, 359-378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.12.031

Walther, A., Kirschbaum, C., Wehrli, S., Rothe, N., Penz, M., Wekenborg, M., & Gao, W. (2023). Depressive Symptoms are Negatively Associated with Hair N-Arachidonoylethanolamine (Anandamide) Levels: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis of four Annual Assessment Waves Examining Hair Endocannabinoids and Cortisol. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacol Biological Psychiatry, 121, 110658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2022.110658

Wilkinson, S. T., Ballard, E. D., Bloch, M. H., Mathew, S. J., Murrough, J. W., Feder, A., . . . & Sanacora, G. (2018). The Effect of a Single Dose of Intravenous Ketamine on Suicidal Ideation: A Systematic Review and Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(2), 150-158. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17040472

Yang, C., Zhou, Z. Q., & Yang, J. J. (2011). Be Prudent of Ketamine in Treating Resistant Depression in Patients with Cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 14(5), 537. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2010.0525

Zarate, C. A., Singh, J. B., Carlson, P. J., Brutsche, N. E., Ameli, R., Luckenbaugh, D. A., . . . & Manji, H. K. (2006). A Randomized Trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate Antagonist in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(8), 856-864. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.63.8.856

Creative Commons License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 4.0.

Derechos de autor 2023

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.